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Carnitine


Carnitine


Potential uses as a pharmaceutical

Heart conditions

Carnitine is primarily used for heart-related conditions. Several
clinical trials show that L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine can be 
used along with conventional treatment for angina to reduce medication 
needs and improve the ability of those with angina to exercise without 
chest pain.[10][11] There is little evidence about a positive effect of 
the use of carnitine after a heart attack. Some studies suggest that 
people taking L-carnitine may be less likely to suffer a subsequent 
heart attack or experience chest pain and abnormal heart rhythms.
However, other studies have not found similar benefits.[13] Further 
research on this subject is needed.

Kidney disease and dialysis

Because kidneys produce carnitine, kidney disease may lead to the
deficiency of carnitine in the body. Thus, carnitine may be prescribed 
to those with kidney disease.[14]

Effect in male infertility

The use of carnitine showed some promise in a controlled trial in
selected cases of male infertility by improving sperm quality.[15] 
L-carnitine supplementation has also shown to have beneficial effects 
in the treatment of varicocele, a major cause of male infertility. [16]

As a weight loss supplement

"Although L-carnitine has been marketed as a weight-loss supplement,
there is no scientific evidence to show that it improves weight loss; 
however, some studies show that oral carnitine reduces fat mass, 
increases muscle mass, and reduces fatigue. All of these effects may 
contribute to weight loss."[17] Furthermore, whereas researchers in 
the 20th century failed to show that muscle carnitine content could be 
increased by dietary supplementation, this may have been in part due 
to inadequate lengths of the supplementation periods.[18] In 2011, 
researchers using L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation for 6 
months in a well controlled study demonstrated not only increased 
muscle carnitine in subjects without carnitine deficiencies, but also 
an impact on muscle metabolism and performance; however, 
measurements of lipid oxidation were not taken in this study, 
and further research is needed.[19]

Regular supplements of L-carnitine, however, contribute to energy
metabolism and improved neurotransmitter function in the brain 
in elderly patients.



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