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Glutamine


Glutamine



Occurrences in nature

Glutamine is the most abundant naturally occurring, non-essential
amino acid in the human body and one of the few amino acids 
that directly cross the blood-brain barrier.[12] In the body, it is 
found circulating in the blood as well as stored in the skeletal 
muscles. It becomes conditionally essential (requiring intake 
from food or supplements) in states of illness or injury.[8]

Dietary sources

Dietary sources of L-glutamine include beef, chicken, fish, eggs,
milk, dairy products, wheat, cabbage, beets, beans, spinach, and 
parsley. Small amounts of free L-glutamine are also found 
in vegetable juices and foods, such as tofu.[13][unreliable 
source?]

Aiding gastrointestinal function

In recent studies, glutamine-enriched diets have been linked with
intestinal effects including maintenance of gut barrier function and 
cell differentiation. This may relate to the fact that the intestinal 
extraction rate of glutamine is higher than that for other amino 
acids, and is therefore thought to be the most viable option when 
attempting to alleviate conditions relating to the gastrointestinal 
tract. These conditions were discovered within the gut between 
glutamine-enriched and non-glutamine-enriched diets. However, 
even though glutamine is thought to have "cleansing" properties 
and effects, it is unknown to what extent glutamine has clinical 
benefits, due to the varied concentrations of glutamine in varieties 
of food.[14] Glutamine may help to protect the lining of the 
gastrointestinal tract or mucosa. It has been suggested that people 
who have inflammatory bowel disease IBD (ulcerative colitis and 
Crohn' s disease) may not have enough glutamine. However, two 
clinical trials found that taking glutamine supplements did not 
improve symptoms of Crohn' s disease. More research is needed. 

Examples for the usage of glutamine

In catabolic states of injury and illness, glutamine becomes
conditionally-essential (requiring intake from food or supplements). 
Glutamine has been studied extensively over the past 10–15 
years and has been shown to be useful in treatment of serious 
illnesses, injury, trauma, burns, and treatment-related side-effects 
of cancer as well as in wound healing for postoperative patients.[8]
Glutamine is also marketed as a supplement used for muscle 
growth in weightlifting, bodybuilding, endurance, and other sports. 
Evidence indicates that glutamine when orally loaded may increase 
plasma HGH levels by stimulating the anterior pituitary 
gland.[9] In biological research, L-glutamine is commonly added 
[10] to the media in cell culture.




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