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Lysine



Lysine



The nutritional requirement per day, in milligrams of lysine per kilogram 
of body weight, is: infants (3–4 months) 103, children (2 years) 64, older 
children (10–12 years) 60 to 44, adults 12.[9] For a 70 kg adult, 12 
milligrams of lysine per kilogram of body weight is 0.84 grams of lysine.
Lysine is the limiting amino acid (the essential amino acid found in the 
smallest quantity in the particular foodstuff) in most cereal grains, but 
is plentiful in most pulses (legumes).[10] Consequently, meals that combine 
cereal grains and legumes, such as the Indian dal with rice, Middle Eastern 
hummus, ful medames, falafel with pita bread, the Mexican beans with rice 
or tortilla have arisen to provide complete protein in diets that are, by 
choice or by necessity, vegetarian. A food is considered to have sufficient 
lysine if it has at least 51 mg of lysine per gram of protein (so that the 
protein is 5.1% lysine). Good sources of lysine are foods rich in protein 
such as soy, as well as meat (specifically red meat, lamb, pork, and 
poultry), cheese (particularly Parmesan), certain fish (such as cod and 
sardines), and eggs.

It has been suggested that lysine may be beneficial for those with herpes
simplex infections.[31] However, more research is needed to fully 
substantiate this claim. For more information, refer to Herpes simplex - 
Lysine.

Lysine has a known anxiolytic action through its effects on serotonin
receptors in the intestinal tract. One study on rats[32] showed that 
overstimulation of the 5-HT4 receptors in the gut are associated with 
anxiety-induced intestinal pathology. Lysine, acting as a serotonin 
antagonist and therefore reducing the overactivity of these receptors, 
reduced signs of anxiety and anxiety-induced diarrhea in the sample 
population. Another study showed that lysine deficiency leads to a 
pathological increase in serotonin in the amygdala, a brain structure that 
is involved in emotional regulation and the stress response.[33]
Human studies have also shown negative correlations between reduced lysine 
intake and anxiety. A population-based study in Syria included 93 families 
whose diet is primarily grain-based and therefore likely to be deficient in 
lysine. Fortification of grains with lysine was shown to reduce markers of 
anxiety, including cortisol levels, and also led to potentiation of 
benzodiazepine receptors (common targets of anxiolytic drugs such 
as Xanax and Ativan).




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