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Dietary iodine intake

The daily Dietary Reference Intake recommended by the United
States Institute of Medicine is between 110 and 130 µg for infants 
up to 12 months, 90 µg for children up to eight years, 130 µg for 
children up to 13 years, 150 µg for adults, 220 µg for pregnant 
women and 290 µg for lactating mothers.[31] The Tolerable Upper 
Intake Level (UL) for adults is 1,100 μg/day (1.1 mg/day). 
The tolerable upper limit was assessed by analyzing the effect of 
supplementation on thyroid-stimulating hormone.

The thyroid gland needs no more than 70 micrograms /day to
synthesize the requisite daily amounts of T4 and T3. The higher 
recommended daily allowance levels of iodine seem necessary 
for optimal function of a number of body systems, including 
lactating breast, gastric mucosa, salivary glands, oral mucosa, 
thymus, epidermis, choroid plexus, etc.[33][34][35] The high 
iodide-concentration of thymus tissue in particular suggests an 
anatomical rationale for this role of iodine in the immune system.
The trophic, antioxidant and apoptosis-inductor actions and the 
presumed anti-tumour activity of iodides has been suggested to 
also be important for prevention of oral and salivary glands 

Natural sources of iodine include sea life, such as kelp and
certain seafood, as well as plants grown on iodine-rich soil.
Iodized salt is fortified with iodine.[39]

As of 2000, the median intake of iodine from food in the United
States was 240 to 300 μg/day for men and 190 to 210 μg/day 
for women.[32] In Japan, consumption is much higher, owing 
to the frequent consumption of seaweed or kombu kelp.

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