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Raw cranberries are a source of polyphenol antioxidants, phytochemicals
under active research for possible benefits to the cardiovascular system 
and immune system, and as anti-cancer agents,[13][14] such as in isolated 
prostate cancer cells.[15] Although polyphenols have antioxidant effects in 
vitro, they can act as pro-oxidants in others.[clarification needed] In 
addition, it is uncertain whether polyphenols and flavonoids account for 
the benefits of diets rich in plant-derived foods.[14]

Cranberry juice contains a high molecular weight non-dializable material
that might inhibit formation of plaque by Streptococcus mutans pathogens 
that cause tooth decay.[16] Cranberry juice components also may possibly 
influence formation of kidney stones.[17][18]

One study compared cranberries with twenty other fruits, showing that
cranberries had a high amount of total polyphenols.[19] Cranberry tannins 
have laboratory evidence for anti-clotting properties and may prevent 
recurring urinary tract infections in women.[20] Raw cranberries and 
cranberry juice are abundant food sources of flavonoids such as 
proanthocyanidins, flavonols [21] and quercetin.[22][23] These compounds 
have shown possible activity as anti-cancer agents in vitro.[24][25][26]
[27][28] However, their effectiveness in humans has not been established, 
and is limited by poor absorption into cells and rapid excretion.

Potential anti-adhesion properties

There is potential benefit of cranberry juice consumption against bacterial
infections in the urinary system. Laboratory research shows that a possible 
effect may occur from a component of the juice inhibiting bacterial 
attachment to the bladder and urethra.[29][30][31]
Although promising for anti-bacterial activity, long-term consumption of 
cranberry juice has not been proven to reduce urinary tract infections in 
whole populations. However, there is preliminary evidence for possible 
effects against urinary tract infections in women.[32] Similar applications 
have not been successfully proven in other clinical trials of consuming 
cranberry juice or tablets by people with spinal cord injury associated 
with bladder catheterization, neurogenic bladder or infrequent urination, 
any of which may be associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial 

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