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under active research for possible benefits to the cardiovascular system
and immune system, and as anti-cancer agents, such as in isolated
prostate cancer cells. Although polyphenols have antioxidant effects in
vitro, they can act as pro-oxidants in others.[clarification needed] In
addition, it is uncertain whether polyphenols and flavonoids account for
the benefits of diets rich in plant-derived foods.
that might inhibit formation of plaque by Streptococcus mutans pathogens
that cause tooth decay. Cranberry juice components also may possibly
influence formation of kidney stones.
cranberries had a high amount of total polyphenols. Cranberry tannins
have laboratory evidence for anti-clotting properties and may prevent
recurring urinary tract infections in women. Raw cranberries and
cranberry juice are abundant food sources of flavonoids such as
proanthocyanidins, flavonols  and quercetin. These compounds
have shown possible activity as anti-cancer agents in vitro.
 However, their effectiveness in humans has not been established,
and is limited by poor absorption into cells and rapid excretion.
infections in the urinary system. Laboratory research shows that a possible
effect may occur from a component of the juice inhibiting bacterial
attachment to the bladder and urethra.
Although promising for anti-bacterial activity, long-term consumption of
cranberry juice has not been proven to reduce urinary tract infections in
whole populations. However, there is preliminary evidence for possible
effects against urinary tract infections in women. Similar applications
have not been successfully proven in other clinical trials of consuming
cranberry juice or tablets by people with spinal cord injury associated
with bladder catheterization, neurogenic bladder or infrequent urination,
any of which may be associated with increased susceptibility to bacterial
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